Scale: 10-12 meters = 1 pm = 1 picometer

Within the Electron Cloud

There are four forces in nature. They are, in order from strongest to weakest: The strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force. The strong and weak nuclear forces operate at very short range: roughly 10-15 meters or less.

We have entered the realm of electromagnetism and gravity – and gravity is 1038 times weaker than electromagnetism. Most of the properties of atoms, molecules, stable matter, and living creatures are determined by electromagnetism. This tiny carbon nucleus has a charge of +6 because of the 6 protons in the nucleus. The nucleus is held together by the strong and weak forces. The reason that the electromagnetic force doesn't overwhelm the much weaker gravitational force at larger dimensions is due to the negatively charged electron. The neutrality of large scale objects in the universe effectively limits the range of the electromagnetic force to atoms and molecules.

Copyright © 2016 by Bruce Bryson